9/22/2005:

Intermediate Word:  ordure (a) precise arrangement  (b) excrement  (c) established organization  (d) papal directive
Difficult Word: - feladese  (a) death through malicious act  (b) camaraderie  (c) bearing false witness  (d) state of anomie

Chemical Proof For A Watery Mars? - SpaceDaily  A large team of NASA scientists, details the first solid set of evidence for water having existed on Mars at the Gusev crater, exploration site of the rover Spirit. Using an array of sophisticated equipment on Spirit, Alian Wang, Ph.D., Washington University senior research scientist in earth and planetary sciences in Arts & Sciences, and the late Larry A. Haskin, Ph.D., found that the volcanic rocks at Gusev crater near Spirit's landing site were much like the olivine-rich basaltic rocks on Earth, and some of them possessed a coating rich in sulfur, bromine, chlorine and hematite, or oxidized iron.     
Calculations Favor Reducing Atmopshere For Early Earth - SpaceDaily  Using primitive meteorites called chondrites as their models, earth and planetary scientists at Washington University in St. Louis have performed outgassing calculations and shown that the early Earth's atmosphere was a reducing one, chock full of methane, ammonia, hydrogen and water vapor. In making this discovery Bruce Fegley, Ph.D., Washington University professor of earth and planetary sciences in Arts & Sciences, and Laura Schaefer, laboratory assistant, reinvigorate one of the most famous and controversial theories on the origins of life, the 1953 Miller-Urey experiment, which yielded organic compounds necessary to evolve organisms.     

Curtain Set To Rise On Mission To The Morning Star - SpaceDaily  Scientists are putting the finishing touches to a landmark European mission to explore Venus, a planet whose scorching climate could help understand global warming on Earth. It is expected to arrive at Venus next April after a 153-day hop across space. The 1.27-tonne spacecraft is a sister to the Mars Express, an orbiter that is now circling the Red Planet. Built in just three years, Venus Express uses the same design and same industrial teams that built its Martian counterpart. Venus is believed to have become victim to a runaway greenhouse effect, in which gases store up heat from the Sun instead of letting it radiate out to space.  




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