9/20/2004:

Intermediate Word:  sutler  (a) long, narrow snowshoe  (b) one who seeks squatter's rights  (c) hand-operated portable water pump  (d) camp-following merchant to troops
Difficult Word: - vena cava  (a) two veins returning blood to the heart's right atrium  (b) a large, open vein of metal ore  (c) an excavation  (d) a rille

New Ring and Possible Moons Found at Saturn - Space.com  The Cassini spacecraft has detected two and possibly three new additions to the already full environment of Saturn, and scientists are puzzled over what they've seen. The first discovery is a wispy arc of ice and rocky material that sits between the A and F rings. The second is a tiny object skirting the outer edge of the F ring, which may be a moon but could just be a clump of rubble, scientists said this week. A third object is even more enigmatic. 
Motions In Nearby Galaxy Cluster Reveal Presence Of Hidden Superstructure - Space.com  A nearby galaxy cluster is facing an intergalactic headwind as it is pulled by an underlying superstructure of dark matter, according to new evidence from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. Astronomers think that most of the matter in the universe is concentrated in long large filaments of dark matter and that galaxy clusters are formed where these filaments intersect. A Chandra survey of the Fornax galaxy cluster revealed a vast, swept-back cloud of hot gas near the center of the cluster. This geometry indicates that the hot gas cloud, which is several hundred thousand light years in length, is moving rapidly through a larger, less dense cloud of gas. The motion of the core gas cloud, together with optical observations of a group of galaxies racing inward on a collision course with it, suggests that an unseen, large structure is collapsing and drawing everything toward a common center of gravity. 

Modeling Ocean Behavior: The Key To Understanding Our Future Climate  Left:  This is a NASA satellite image of the warm waters of the Gulf Stream running up the U.S. eastern seaboard. The Gulf Stream shows up as a winding rope of orange and yellow (indicating warm waters) against the cooler green and blue waters. Credit: MODIS Ocean Group NASA/GSFC SST product by U. Miami  Of particular interest is the ocean's Conveyor Belt or thermohaline circulation, since both temperature and salinity are at the root of its existence. People in the U.S. know it as part of the "Gulf Stream" that carries warm waters north along the U.S. eastern seaboard and across the north Atlantic Ocean. It then flows south from the European side of the Atlantic, crosses the equator, joins another ocean circulation, and eventually reaches the Pacific, a trip that lasts 1000 years! At high latitudes, cold, dry air from land lowers the average temperature of the warm waters coming from the equator.   





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