Intermediate Word:  daishiki (a) African man's tunic  (b) dagger with curved, wavy blade  (c) alcoholic beverage made from rice  (d) Shinto warrior
Difficult Word: - yare  (a) meadow weed  (b) plant harvested as hay  (c) lively  (d) two-masted schooner

Armstrong: Mars Easier Voyage Than Moon - Space.com  KUALA LUMPUR, Malaysia (AP)—Neil Armstrong said Tuesday that a manned mission to Mars will not happen for at least 20 years—but the effort might be easier than what it took to send him to the moon in 1969. The first man to walk on the moon noted that scientists must develop better onboard spacecraft technology and stronger protection shields from harmful space radiation before a manned flight to the Red Planet can be accomplished. "It will be expensive, it will take a lot of energy and a complex spacecraft. But I suspect that even though the various questions are difficult and many, they are not as difficult and many as those we faced when we started the Apollo (space program) in 1961." Armstrong, 75, who seldom appears at public functions or grants interviews, commanded NASA's Apollo 11 mission in 1969. 
Gene defects plague stem-cell lines  - Nature  Embryonic stem cells that are cultured in the lab accumulate an alarming array of genetic changes, including mutations known to be linked to cancer. The finding throws into question whether such cells could eventually be used for therapy, unless they can be kept fresh and checked for mutations before use. In January, researchers announced that most human embryonic stem-cell lines, including ones approved by the US government for use in federally funded studies, have been contaminated by animal cells used as a growth medium in lab dishes. Any cell containing such foreign proteins would presumably trigger a damaging immune response if transplanted into a human patient. Researchers realized they would have to grow their cells differently in order to use them for therapy. Now another difficulty has come to light.

Organic bath saves paper from decay  - Nature  Left:  Old documents are falling apart thanks to corrosive inks.  Scientists have discovered a way to slow the disintegration of old manuscripts. The technique involves bathing papers in an organic solution doped with alkali compounds and antioxidants. These help to tie up atoms of copper and other metals in the ink that may eat the paper away.It is the first successful treatment that is not water-based, the researchers announced at the annual conference of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in Dublin on 5 September. This means it can be applied to documents without fear of washing away soluble scribbles, causing books to swell or ruining leather bindings. The researchers, who have applied for a patent, say the bath could help to protect kilometres of ancient documents and manuscripts throughout the world's libraries for many years to come. They think it should be ready for commercial use in a few years' time. Conservators have long known that there is something corrosive about inks from the Middle Ages. Many documents, from sketches by famous artists to political treaties, have fallen apart over time, with holes appearing where the ink used to be.

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