Intermediate Word:  distaff -  (a) staff on which is tow is wound for spinning  (b) wooden fighting staff  (c) remotely located but centrally reporting staff group  (d) brass ferule protecting the bottom of a staff
Difficult Word: - ensiform  (a) amorphous

Antineutrinos Provide A New Window Into The Earth's Interior - SpaceDaily  
Now, geophysicists have a new tool for studying the Earth's interior: neutrinos, subatomic particles that stars spew out, and their antiparticles, called antineutrinos, which emanate from nuclear reactors and from the Earth's interior when uranium and thorium isotopes undergo a cascade of heat-generating radioactive decay processes. A detector in Japan called KamLAND (for Kamioka liquid scintillator antineutrino detector) has sensed the geologically produced antineutrinos, known as "geoneutrinos." This new window on the world that geoneutrinos open could yield important geophysical information, according to the Nature paper's 87 authors from more than a dozen institutions and four nations. Unlike the energetic sun, which is a gigantic generator of neutrinos, the Earth emits only a modest number of antineutrinos-and scientists need a huge detector to be able to see them.    
Image of a satellite cell Body's own cells may mend muscles  - BBC  A type of cell found naturally in the body holds hope of treatments for muscle diseases such as muscular dystrophy, say UK scientists. It has long been suspected but never proved that satellite cells which coat muscles can make new muscle. The Medical Research Council and experts at University College London have now shown this is the case, at least in mice. Professor Terence Partridge and colleagues took between five and 25 mouse satellite cells and transplanted or grafted them into some muscle tissue in the lab. Each grafted satellite cell produced new muscle.  

Outside view: The battle For Central Asia - SpaceDaily  Pentagon chief Donald Rumsfeld has launched a good, if not brilliant, counterattack in the Central Asian game to preserve Washington's bases in the region.Rumsfeld's visit was an answer to the call from the Shanghai Cooperation Organization -- comprising Russia, China, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan -- for the counter-terrorist coalition in Afghanistan (primarily the United States) to set a timeframe to withdraw military bases from Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. If the Americans have to leave Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan it will be a heavy blow for Rumsfeld's plan of having a worldwide skeleton network of "lilypad" bases, which he needs to control Central Asia.     

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