Intermediate Word: 
  (a) appeals are elevated to a higher appellate court, skipping an intermediate level  (b) union withdraws from talks with management  (c)  a government skips over diplomatic channels to make direct contact with another government  (d) lenders bypass banks, loaning money directly to borrowers 
Difficult Word: - theorbo  (a) saw for notching arrows  (b) tunic with pockets  (c) lute  (d) bridge on a bass viol

Fluid "Stripes" May Be Essential for High-Temp Superconductivity - Science Daily  Left:  A schematic diagram illustrating stripe order in materials such as LBCO 1:8. Circles indicate the hole-doped copper sites. Up and down arrows represent magnetic moments (orientation of electron spins) on undoped copper sites. Alternating "stripes" of holes and magnetic regions may be necessary for superconductivity.  The scientists were studying a material composed of lanthanum, barium, copper and oxygen (LBCO). The parent compound, LCO, which lacks the barium, is not a superconductor (a material through which current moves with no resistance), nor even a regular conductor. When barium is substituted for some of the lanthanum atoms, however, the material starts to exhibit superconductivity.
Gulf Stream Migration Routes Affects Biological Productivity - Science Daily  Situated between the continental shelf of the eastern United States and the north wall of the Gulf Stream flowing eastward from Cape Hatteras, the Slope Sea is a transition region between the productively rich coastal waters and the productively static open ocean. The scientists expected that during the years when the Slope Sea expanded due to a greater transport of Labrador water, primary productivity, or the production of plankton that forms the basis of the food chain, would be increased. However, their results showed the opposite effect.  

Continents Played Key Role In Collapse And Regeneration Of Earth's Early Greenhouse - Science Daily  If a time machine could take us back 4.6 billion years to the Earth's birth, we'd see our sun shining 20 to 25 percent less brightly than today. Without an earthly greenhouse to trap the sun's energy and warm the atmosphere, our world would be a spinning ball of ice. Life may never have evolved. But life did evolve, so greenhouse gases must have been around to warm the Earth. Evidence from the geologic record indicates an abundance of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. Methane probably was present as well, but that greenhouse gas doesn't leave enough of a geologic footprint to detect with certainty. 

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