Intermediate Word:  Úlan  (a) subtle sophistication  (b) enthusiastic vigor  (c) military precision  (d) the elite
Difficult Word: - lighter  (a) cargo-unloading barge  (b) police van  (c) warning beacon  (d) running light on the side of a vehicle

Black Magic Or Just Fancy Silicon - SpaceDaily  Left:  The lenses in the Mars Exploration Rover cameras range from 8 to 12 millimeters (0.3 to 0.5 of an inch) in diameter, about the size of a soft contact lens. + Click for full image. NASA Image  A key science and engineering requirement called for two high-resolution, color cameras known as the panoramic cameras on each rover. These cameras, used together, would provide full-color, three dimensional, 360-degree panorama images of the terrain around each rover -- a very important aid to engineers who are driving the rovers. "We set a benchmark with the camera by asking that they have resolution at least as good as the human eye with perfect vision," Bell said. 
NASA Arctic Sea Ice Study May Stir Up Climate Models - SpaceDaily  Contrary to historical observations, sea ice in the high Arctic undergoes very small, back and forth movements twice a day, even in the dead of winter. It was once believed ice deformation at such a scale was almost non-existent. According to a recent NASA-funded study, the finding is significant. Such movements may substantially increase the production of new ice and should be factored into Arctic climate models.  "If such oscillations in Arctic sea ice increase as the sea ice cover thins due to warmer atmospheric temperatures, then this mechanism of ice production may actually serve to slow down the overall depletion of ice in the Arctic Ocean," he added. Kwok said other parts of the Arctic Ocean would be analyzed in future studies. "A simple simulation of this ice production process shows that it can account for approximately 20 percent of the base growth of thick ice during the central Arctic winter."

Arctic Ozone Loss More Sensitive To Climate Change Than Thought - SpaceDaily  Left:  Chart showing past 15 year north pole ozone readings  According to the study, the sensitivity of Arctic ozone to temperature is three times greater than predicted by atmospheric chemistry models. This leads to the possibility that decreases in stratospheric temperatures may have significantly larger impacts on future Arctic ozone concentrations than have been expected in the past. "If stratospheric climatic conditions had not changed since the 1960s, Arctic ozone loss would be much less severe today, despite the increase in chlorofluorocarbons and bromine," Rex said.  

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