Intermediate Word:  halidom  (a) buckler  (b) armory  (c) holy sanctuary  (d) kindergarten
Difficult Word: -murphy  (a) policeman  (b) Irish tough guy  (c) heavy walking stick  (d) potato

Land Cover Changes Affect U.S. Summer Climate - SpaceDaily  Previous studies simulated and compared past and present climates with current and potential vegetation. This research used the NASA-funded Ecosystem Demography computer model to trace the evolution of vegetation distribution patterns over the U.S. for nearly 300 years. "The model is truly a technological breakthrough and enables scientists to study the potential impact of land use and climate change across a wide range of scales," Hurtt said. The researchers found land cover changes produced a significant cooling effect of more than one degree Fahrenheit in parts of the Great Plains and Midwest as agriculture expanded and replaced grasslands.
Wading In: Studying Earth's Oceans - SpaceDaily  Vazquez's second hat is research. "My own research involves trying to improve the quality of sea surface temperature data," he says. "The temperature of the ocean is a major indicator of climate change. The ocean remembers things a lot longer than the atmosphere does," says Vazquez. "But to use sea surface temperature to track climate change, you need to be able to measure temperature to within one tenth of one degree over a ten-year period. Creating good climate records is one of NASA's goals. Wind measurements tell you about the forcing of the ocean--the currents. Sea level, or ocean surface topography measured by altimetry, shows you where heat is stored in the ocean.

Scientists Light A Path For New Nerve Cells - SpaceDaily  Scientists at the University of Toronto are taking regenerative medicine to a new dimension with a process for guiding nerve cells that could someday help reconnect severed nerve endings. In the study, Shoichet and doctoral student Ying Luo combined a gel-like substance called agarose with compounds having "photolabile" properties that change chemically when exposed to light. When they directed laser light at the gel, its chemical composition changed, creating a "channel" through the gel. Although not a physical channel, the interaction created a "growth-friendly" chemical pathway through the agarose.

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