Intermediate Word:  finial (a) ornamental lampshade screw  (b) drawcoard curtain hangerl  (c) type of knot  (d) symbol designating the end of a book
Difficult Word:
  grivet  (a) cleat for sheeting a jib sail  (b) rope tieing monk's robe  (c) printer's devil  (d) long-tailed African monkey

New Insight into Earth’s Early Bombardment - Space.com   New dating of lunar rocks add to a growing body of evidence that the Moon and Earth were pelted by a flurry of large meteorites during a relatively brief geologic time span about 3.9 billion years ago. Known as the "Late Heavy Bombardment", or LHB, this period of heightened meteorite activity would have had important implications for life on Earth, since it coincides roughly with the time that scientists think the first primitive bacteria appeared on our planet.     
U.S. Unprepared for Next Great Quake - Live Science  Looking at what remained of the cityscape in San Francisco, as well as observing what other earthquakes knocked down in the following years, allowed California's structural engineers to build upon their knowledge. The same can't be said of other earthquake-prone regions across the county, including Seattle, Vancouver, Nashville, Memphis, and New York, whose residents might not even realize they're at risk.     

Killer GRB Unlikely In The Galactic Neighborhood - SpaceDaily  Left:  Artist's conception of a gamma-ray burst, which apparently is a rare event in the Milky Way. Image credit: NASA/GLAST  Are you losing sleep at night because you're afraid that all life on Earth will suddenly be annihilated by a massive dose of gamma radiation from the cosmos? Well, now you can rest easy. Some scientists have wondered whether a deadly astronomical event called a gamma ray burst could happen in a galaxy like ours, but a group of astronomers at Ohio State University and their colleagues have determined that such an event would be nearly impossible. Scientists suspect that if a GRB were to occur near our solar system, and one of the beams were to hit Earth, it could cause mass extinctions all over the planet. GRBs tend to occur in small, misshapen galaxies that lack heavy chemical elements. Even among metal-poor galaxies, the events are rare.  

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