Intermediate Word:  clerestory (a) upper half of the nave of a church  (b) dining hall  (c) grape wine, with a delicate bouquet  (d) elegantly curved sideboard
Difficult Word:
  fleche  (a) tool for nocking an arrow  (b) slender spire above the nave of a church  (c)  sliver of wood or metal shot from a crossbow  (d) the sighting flange in a boresight

Survey Reveals Building Block Process For Biggest Galaxies - SpaceDaily  A new study of the universe's most massive galaxy clusters shows how mergers play a critical role in their evolution. Astronomers used the twin Gemini Observatory instruments in Hawaii and Chile, and the Hubble Space Telescope to study populations of stars in the universe's most massive galaxy clusters over a range of epochs - the earliest being nearly 7 billion years old, or half the age of the universe. "The young galaxies in distant clusters appear to be very different from those in the mature clusters that we see in the local Universe." The earliest galaxy clusters display a huge variation in their abundances of elements.     
Arecibo Survey Produces Dark Galaxy Candidate - SpaceDaily  Results from the Arecibo Radio Telescope's new Galaxy Environment Survey show what appears to be the first candidates for mysterious objects called dark galaxies, which burn brilliantly in radio wavelengths but are almost invisible to optical telescopes. Dark galaxies could help explain where part of the so-called missing mass of the universe is hiding. The AGES survey, begun last January, is the most sensitive, large-scale survey of neutral hydrogen to date. Neutral hydrogen is found in most galaxies and is considered a key tool in the search for dark galaxies, because it can be detected even when there are no stars or other radiation sources shining.     

Spitzer Sees New Planet Disk Around Dead Star - SpaceDaily  NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has uncovered new evidence that new planets could emerge from the ashes of a supernova around dense, rapidly spinning stellar remnants called pulsars. "Now we can say that (planets around pulsars) are not uncommon," Aleksander Wolszczan of Penn State University told reporters at a news briefing about the discovery. "Planet formation is a much more robust phenomenon that we thought."  Wolszczan and colleagues used the orbiting infrared telescope to survey the scene around a pulsar named 4U 0142+61. They found a surrounding disk made up of debris shot out during the star's death throes.

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