Intermediate Word:  morraine (a) rocky debris carried by a glacier  (b) cattle disease  (c) monastic cape, with cowl  (d) swamp
Difficult Word:
  misology -  (a) study of error generation mechanisms  (b) classification rules for evolutionary tree  (c) branch of science dealing with personality classification  (d) hatred of reason or enlightenment 

Nichia turns on white LED chip  - El. Engr. Times   Nichia Corp. has developed a white LED chip with 100-lumens/watt efficiency, with volume production expected this year. The move comes amid an intensifying race to boost the efficiency of white LEDs so the parts can compete against conventional lighting devices. For white LEDs, efficiency must rise to between 70 and 100 lumens/W in order to compete with fluorescent lights. Indeed, 100 lumens/W is a milestone for white LED players. That level was not expected until 2008 to 2010.      
Comets 'are born of fire and ice'  - BBC  Comets are born of fire as well as ice, the first results from the US space agency's (Nasa) Stardust mission show. In January, Stardust's sample-return capsule landed in Utah, carrying over a million tiny comet grains inside. Some of these grains contain material that formed at extremely high temperatures, scientists have found. "When these grains formed, they were incandescent - they were red or white hot." The high-temperature minerals found in the Stardust samples may have formed in the inner part, where temperatures exceeded 1,000C. "This raises as many questions as answers." 

Planet hunters find 'super-Earth'  - BBC  Planet hunters have discovered an icy "super-Earth" circling a distant star. International astronomers suspect it is a bare, icy, rocky world, much colder than the Earth and 13 times its mass.  The planet orbits a star about half as big as our Sun, positioned some 9,000 light-years away. At -201C, it is one of the coldest extra-solar planets to be discovered. First, this icy 'super-Earth' dominates the region around its star that in our Solar System is populated by the gas-giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn," Andrew Gould, the discoverer, said. "We've never seen a system like this before because we've never had the means to find them. "And second, these icy 'super-Earths' are pretty common. Roughly, 35% of all stars have them." Since the 1990s, astronomers have discovered some 170 extra-solar, or exoplanets, a planet which orbits a star other than the Sun. There is great interest in finding extrasolar planets that are like the Earth, since these could, in theory, have the right conditions for supporting life. In January, a new planet 5.5 times the mass of the Earth - the smallest yet - became the third exoplanet to be detected by the microlensing technique. It holds out the promise that we will discover many Earth-sized planets with this technique." 

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