Thoughts Concerning Rejuvenation
Of course, it's all guesswork for me, but for unicellular lifeforms, I'm going to suppose that the rectification of the parent cell takes phase in the centromeric phase, before the cell divides.
Let's run through an imaginary scenario in wnich a
paramecium is reconstituted prior to fission.
Something has to occur to trigger the reproductuve and restorative cycle.
A paramecium might be of the order of 20 microns long by 10 microns in diameter, or about 1,500 cubic microns in colume.
One cubic micron is one billion cubic nanometers. There might be something like 100 atoms in a cubic nanometer. An organic molecule might occupy anywhere from 1 to 1,000 cubic nanometers (for a very complex macromolecule). A unicellular organism would be therefore be constituted of 1 billion to 1 trillion molecules. Let's call it a trillion. This means that a cell would be constructed of about as many molecules as a puppy is of cells.
Now let's consider how this rejuvenation process might work.
As a by-product of their metabolic cycles, cells accumulate, with advancing age, perhaps several billion molecules of a yellowish-brown sludge that's called "lipofuscin". It's normally insoluble, and can't readily be eliminated by the cell. It must be cleared fom the cell at the moment of reproduction. So how can this be accomplished? Presumably, several billion molecules of special "detergent" molecules must be manufactured by the sub-microscopic chemical factories in the cell's organelles. These must then circulate throughout the cell, attaching to the lipofuscin molecules and somehow, flushing them through the cell's membrane to the outside. In addition, the excess "detergent" molecules must also be flushed from the cell. (Both objectives would be met if the "detergent" molecules are excreted from the cell carrying any attached lipofuscin molecules with them. However, they would have to retained within the cell long enough for them to capture all the unattached lipofucsin molecules.) Another way this might work would be if the "detergent" molecules acted as catalysts, helping the lipofucsin molecules combine with other substances in the cytoplasm (water, fat) that would chemically alter them so that they would become evictable by the cell. Here again, the "detergent" molecules would have to scavenged from the cell once they've done their job.
But however it works, somehow, Nature makes it happen.
At the Nanotechnology Level, Everything Works Mechanically
This statement isn't exactly correct, because nano-objects interact with each other through short-range forces. However, they interact through direct contact rather than at a distance. Individual molecules are harnessed like Legoes to construct living organisms.
Cleaning Up the Genome
One mystery to me is how the genome can be completely repaired. It has been observed that DNA is stored redundantly as a double helix, so that there is a backup template on one strand to repair DNA when a gene on the other strand is damaged. However, neutrons disrupt both strands of DNA simultaneously. You wonder how this DNA damage is repaired. Could it be that the duplicate stretches of genes on a chromosome are there to provide additional redundancy for DNA repair?
Bonds and Real Estate Investment Trusts Now?
There is an abundance of articles recommending buying bonds and real estate investment trusts (REITS) right now. There is little question that the next move in interest rates will be up. This is the worst possible time to buy bonds and to buy real estate stock. When interest rates go down, the value of your bonds go up. But with 3-year interest rates on government bonds running a little over 3%, and rates on interest-bearing accounts running about 1.5%, interest rates can't go much lower. When interest rates go up, the 10-year Treasury bonds you own that pay 4.4% aren't going to be as attractive to you or to any potential buyers of your bonds as new Treasury bonds that pay 6.6%. So the value of your bonds go down as interest rates go up, and you lose money. Why are these articles recommending that you go out and buy bonds now? You wonder.