"Neutriceuticals - 2",

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Alpha Lipoic Acid
    Dr. Perricone refers to alpha lipoic acid as "Nature's most powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Alpha-lipoic acid is both fat and water soluble, so it can penetrate every part of the cell. Also, it plays a key role in the effectiveness of the mitochondria. Alpha lipoic acid is a key component in Dr. Perricone's skin creams.

November 15, 2003 Update:  

    To this might be added acetyl-l-carnitine, since alpha lipoic acid and acetyl-l-carnitine seem to form a synergistic combination.

Ascorbyl Palmitate
    Ascorbyl palmitate is the fat-soluble form of vitamin C. What's interesting about it is it's relationship to Dr. Imre Nagy's 1978 cellular-membrane hypothesis of aging. Dr. Nagy Dr. Nagy conducted experiments in which he analyzed DNA from people as old as 100, and found no evidence of DNA damage. On this basis, he concluded that DNA damage couldn't be the cause of aging. (How he ascertained that there was no DNA damage in these old cells, I don't know. This conclusion runs counter to other discussions I've read.) Dr. Nagy then carried out experiments that led him to believe that most of the critical damage caused by aging occurs in the cellular membrane that encloses a cell rather than in the interior of the cell. Since cell membranes are fatty phospholipid layers, the fat-soluble ascorbyl palmitate is much more suitable for them than water-soluble ascorbic acid.

    DMAE (DiMethylAmine Ethanol) is a substance that helps stabilize cell membranes (quoth Dr. Perricone). It also seems to have limited antioxidant properties. Dr. Perricone recommends it for both internal and external use.

Alpha and Beta Hydroxy Acids
    The principal alpha hydroxy acids that are used for skin care are glycolic acid, prepared from sugar cane, and lactic acid, found in milk They are exfoliants that help to remove the topmost layer of dead skin, but they're also antioxidants that potentiate the activities of alpha

Coenzyme Q-10
    Coenzyme Q-10 is another fat-soluble antioxidant that helps to protect cell membranes, as well as complementing alpha lipoic acid in the cellular powerhouses that are the mitochondria. It's also an ingredient in Dr. Perricone's skin creams.

Future Directions
    Dr. Perricone also describes two approaches to combating aging that are currently in the pipeline.
    One of these is the discovery of agents that will trap free radicals until antioxidants can reach them. These substances are nitrones, the first of which was phenylbutyl nitrone (PBN, 1990). A family of other nitrones has since been synthesized that show 10 to 20 times the radical-trapping activity of PBN. Their application to the skin will probably come sooner than their whole-body application.

"Telomerase: Staying Forever Young"
   This is Dr. Perricone's title for his section on telomerase. Dr. Perricone believes that telomerase will be on the market in 5 to 10 years (2205 to 2010), and can be used for skin care sooner. "Although more research needs to be done to prove the effectiveness of this approach, if the body's skin cells respond in the same way as the cells treated by Shay, the result would be permanently youthful skin."
November 15, 2003 Update:
    The connection between telomerase and cancer may slow the adoption of telomerase. Also, mice have very long telomeres, but that doesn't keep them from aging.

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