10/7/2005:

Intermediate Word:  mikado (a) African tribal chieftain  (b) Malaysian prime minister   (c) Japanese emperor  (d) Shinto shrine
Difficult Word: - doucer  (a) bribe.  (b) water diviner  (c) inveterate card player  (d) woman of the streets

Which of These Foods Will Stop Cancer? (Not So Fast)  - NY Times  Left:  Dr. Arthur Schatzkin of the National Cancer Institute says people want answers about diet and cancer, even if they are not definitive.   Despite the often adamant advice, scientists say they really do not know whether dietary changes will make a difference. And there lies a quandary for today's medicine. It is turning out to be much more difficult than anyone expected to discover if diet affects cancer risk. Hypotheses abound, but convincing evidence remains elusive. "For prostate cancer, if you look around the world, there might be 50-fold or greater differences in rates; they're huge," said Dr. Meir Stampfer, a professor of epidemiology and nutrition at the Harvard School of Public Health. "There are also big differences, many-fold differences, around the world for breast cancer and colon cancer." But as the results from large-scale, prospective studies have begun to roll in, many researchers say they are taken aback. The findings, they say, are not what they expected.    
Physicists Measure Tiny Force That Limits How Far Machines Can Shrink - Science Daily  Left: Alex Cronin (left) and John Perreault make an adjustment on the atom interferometer that they used in making the first direct measurement of atom wavelength shift caused by the van der Waals interaction. (Image courtesy of University of Arizona)  University of Arizona physicists have directly measured how close speeding atoms can come to a surface before the atoms' wavelengths change. Theirs is a first, fundamental measurement that confirms the idea that the wave of a fast-moving atom shortens and lengthens depending on its distance from a surface, an idea first proposed by pioneering quantum physicists in the late 1920s. The measurement tells nanotechnologists how small they can make extremely tiny devices before a microscopic force between atoms and surfaces, called van der Waals interaction, becomes a concern. The result is important both for nanotechnology, where the goal is to make devices as small as a few tens of billionths of a meter, and for atom optics, where the goal is to use the wave nature of atoms to make more precise sensors and study quantum mechanics. "Our research provides the first direct experimental evidence that a surface 25 nanometers away (25 billionths of a meter) causes a shift in the atom wave crests," Perreault said. "The van der Walls force is a big deal for atoms."

Coming To The Arctic Near You: The Longer, Hotter Summer - Science Daily  Arctic climate change is usually viewed as caused by the retreat of sea ice, which reduces high-latitude albedo-- a measure of the amount of sunlight reflected off a surface - a change most pronounced in winter. "Summer warming is more pronounced over land than over sea ice, and atmosphere and sea-ice observations can't explain this," said Terry Chapin, professor of ecology at the University of Alaska Fairbanks' Institute of Arctic Biology and lead author of the paper which appears in the September 22, 2005 advance online publication Science Express. "Snowmelt is 2.5 days earlier for each decade we studied,"   




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